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The Four Requirements of SCM
Identification: an identification scheme is needed to reflect the structure of the product. This involves identifying the structure and kinds of components, making them unique and accessible in some form by giving each component a name, a version identification, and a configuration identification. For example, this addresses the question, "What version of the file is this?"
Control: controlling the release of a product and changes to it throughout the lifecycle by having controls in place that ensure consistent software via the creation of a baseline product. For example, this addresses the question, "How many changes went into the latest version of this product?"
Status Accounting: recording and reporting the status of components and change requests, and gathering vital statistics about components in the product. For example, this addresses the question, "How many files were affected by fixing this one bug?"
Audit and review: validating the completeness of a product and maintaining consistency among the components by ensuring that components are in an appropriate state throughout the entire project life cycle and that the product is a well-defined collection of components. For example, this addresses the question, "Are all the correct versions of files used in this current release?"
IEEE standard 729-1983